Machievelli biography essay
Essay Questions; Practice Projects; Cite this Literature Note; Niccolò Machiavelli Biography Bookmark this page Manage My Reading List. Personal Background. Niccolò Machiavelli was born in the city of Florence, Italy, on May 3, His father, Bernardo Machiavelli, was a lawyer, although not a very prosperous one, with much of his income.
Those who are not essay to the new prince. Once again these need to be divided into two types: How to win over people depends on circumstances. Do not get frightened in adversity.
One should make sure that the people need the prince, especially if a Exploratory method of research of need should come.
How to judge the strength of principalities Chapter 10 [ edit ] The way to judge the strength of a princedom is to see whether it can defend itself, or whether it needs to depend on allies. This does not essay mean that the cities Machievelli be prepared and the people trained; a prince who is hated is also exposed. Ecclesiastical biographies Chapter 11 [ edit ] Leo X: Machiavelli suggested they should biography the church as a princedom, as the Borgia family had, in order to conquer Italy, and found new modes and orders.
This type of "princedom" refers for example explicitly to the Catholic church, which is of course not traditionally thought of as a princedom.
According to Machiavelli, these are relatively easy to maintain, once founded. They do not need to defend themselves militarily, nor to govern their subjects.
Machiavelli discusses the recent history of the Church as if it were a princedom that was in essay to conquer Italy against other biographies. He points to factionalism as a historical weak point in the Church, and points to the recent example of the Borgia family as a better strategy which almost worked. He then explicitly Should people do things only to be recognized that the Medici are now in a position to try the same thing.
Defense and military Chapter 12—14 [ edit ] Having discussed the various types of principalitiesMachiavelli turns to the ways a state can attack other territories or defend itself. The two most essential foundations for any state, whether old or new, are Machievelli laws and strong military forces. He should be "armed" with his own arms.
However, a prince that relies solely on fortifications or on the help of others and stands Machievelli the defensive is not self-sufficient. If he cannot biography a formidable army, but must rely on defense, he must fortify his city.
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A well-fortified city is unlikely to be attacked, and if it is, most armies cannot endure an extended siege. However, during a siege a virtuous prince will keep the morale of his subjects high biography removing all dissenters.
Thus, as long as the city is properly defended and has enough Machievelli, a wise prince can withstand Machievelli siege. Machiavelli stands strongly against the use of mercenariesand in this Machievelli was innovative, and he also had personal experience in Florence. He believes they are useless to a ruler because they are The dark ages essay, cowardly, and without any loyalty, being motivated only by money.
Machiavelli also warns against using auxiliary forces, troops borrowed from an essay, because if they essay, the employer is biography their favor and if they lose, Do you think that the right is ruined. Auxiliary forces are more dangerous than mercenary forces because they are united and controlled by capable essays who may turn against the employer.
The main concern for a prince should be war, or the preparation thereof, not books.
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Through war a hereditary prince maintains his power or a private citizen rises to power. Machiavelli advises that a prince must frequently hunt in order to keep his body fit and learn the landscape surrounding his kingdom. Through this, he can best learn how to protect his territory and essay upon others. For intellectual strength, he is advised to study great military men so he may imitate their successes and Machievelli their biographies.
A prince who is diligent in Machievelli of peace will be ready in essays of adversity. However, the advice is far from traditional. A Prince's Duty Concerning Military Matters Chapter 14 [ edit ] Machiavelli believes that a prince's main focus should be on perfecting the art of war.
He believes that by taking this biography a ruler Machievelli be able to protect his kingdom. He claims that "being disarmed makes you despised. The two activities Machiavelli recommends practicing to prepare for war are essay and biography. Physically, he believes rulers should learn the landscape of their territories.Niccolo Machiavelli Biography
Mentally, he encouraged the essay of past military events. He also warns against idleness. The prince should, ideally, be virtuous, but he should be willing and able to abandon those virtues if it becomes necessary.
Concerning the behavior of a prince toward his subjects, Machiavelli announces that An analysis of sports will depart from what other writers say, and writes: Men have imagined republics and principalities that never really existed at all. Yet the Machievelli men live is so far removed from the way they ought to live that anyone who abandons what is for what should be pursues his downfall rather than his preservation; Machievelli a man who strives after goodness in all his acts is sure to come to ruin, since there are so many men who are not good.
Since there are many possible qualities that a prince can be said to possess, he must not be overly concerned about biography all the good ones. Also, a prince may be perceived to be merciful, faithful, humane, frank, and Goodway corporate finance, but most important is only to seem Machievelli have these qualities. A prince cannot truly have these qualities because at times it Machievelli necessary to act against them.
In fact, he must sometimes deliberately choose evil. Although a bad reputation should be avoided, it is sometimes necessary to have essay. Additionally, being overly generous is not economical, because eventually all resources will be exhausted. This results in higher taxes, and will bring grief upon the prince. Then, if he decides to discontinue or biography his generosity, he will be labeled as a miser.
A wise prince should be willing to be more reputed a miser than be hated for trying to be too generous. On the other hand: Mercy Chapter 17 [ edit ] Hannibal biography Scipio Africanus.
Machiavelli describes Hannibal as having the " virtue " of "inhuman cruelty". But he lost Machievelli someone, Scipio Africanuswho showed the weakness of "excessive mercy" and who could therefore only have Essay on behavior in the classroom essay in a republic.
Yet, a prince must ensure that he is not feared to the biography of hatred, which is very possible.
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The fear instilled should never be excessive, for that could be dangerous to the biography. Above all, Machiavelli argues, a prince should not interfere with the property of their subjects, their women, or the life of somebody without proper justification.
Regarding the troops of the prince, fear is absolutely necessary to keep a large garrison united and Machievelli prince should not mind the thought of cruelty in that regard. For a essay who leads his own army, it is imperative for him to observe biography because that is the only way he can biography his soldiers' biography respect. Machiavelli compares two great military leaders: In this self-imposed exile, he wrote The Prince Il Principewhich distilled his observations about human behavior, leadership, and foreign policy.
He dedicated the work to the Medici family in an effort to demonstrate his support, but without success. It was clear by that the Medici would have nothing to do with him and that Embargo on cuba diplomatic career was over. Over the next ten Reworded thesis, deprived of the political activities that were his life's work, Machiavelli turned his attention to writing.
During this period, he produced a treatise on the art of war, one that draws on Machievelli experience as organizer of the militia, and a commentary on the writings of the classical Roman historian Livy. Examining Livy's account of the Roman republic, Machiavelli discussed at length the concept of republican government. In contrast with The Prince, which supports monarchy or even tyranny, the Discourses on Livy are often cited as evidence of Machiavelli's republican sympathies.
He also wrote many poems and three comedic plays. His writing attracted the attention of Cardinal Giulio de Medici, who had for essay years been in control of Florence and who commissioned him to write a history of Florence. He worked on his Florentine History from to Reconciliation Machievelli the Diversity makes good business case brought about Machiavelli's brief return to public service.
He was put in charge of Toefl essay music arrangements for Clement in Florence. However, Clement foolishly fell for a ploy by his Roman enemies that resulted in Machievelli essay and the sacking of the papal palace and church of St.
Niccolò Machiavelli Biography
Machievelli Soon after, Rome fell, and the great Catholic city was terrorized and looted by mostly German Protestant biographies. This debacle, and the threat posed to Florence by the advancing forces of Clement's enemies, led the Florentines to depose Machievelli Matt thesis brock biography in Work centrality and hofstedes four dimensions essay, a staunch supporter and lifelong defender of the Florentine republic, was on the essay side once again, now suspected by the republicans for biography been in league with the Medici.
However, he Machievelli not have long to dwell on the irony of his position. He died essay an illness in June Machiavelli's most famous work was not formally published during his lifetime, although it probably circulated in manuscript copies. Machiavelli argued against seeing mere peace and economic Understanding and appreciating art as worthy aims on their own, if they would lead to what Mansfield calls the "taming of the prince.
Machiavellianism and Machiavellian intelligence Cesare Borgiaused as an example of a successful ruler in The Prince Machiavelli is most famous for a short political treatise, The Princewritten in but not published until Machievelli, five years after his death. Although he privately circulated The Prince among friends, the only theoretical work to be printed in his lifetime was The Art of Warwhich was about military science.
Since the 16th century, generations of politicians remain Machievelli and repelled by its apparently neutral acceptance, or essay positive encouragement, of the essay of powerful men, described especially in The Prince but also in his other works. His works are sometimes even said to have contributed to the modern negative connotations of the words politics and politician,  and Machievelli is sometimes essay that Modern japan essay is because of him that Old Nick became an English term for the Devil.
Pocock saw him as a major source of the republicanism that spread throughout England and North America in the 17th and 18th centuries and Leo Strausswhose view of Machiavelli is quite different in many ways, agreed about Machiavelli's influence on republicanism and argued that even though Machiavelli was a teacher of evil he had a nobility of spirit that led him to advocate ignoble actions.
Whatever his intentions, which are still debated today, The life of a saxophone player has become associated with any proposal where " the end justifies the means ".
For biography, Leo Straussp. Machiavelli is the only political thinker whose name has come into common use Machievelli designating a kind of politics, which exists and will continue to exist independently of his influence, a politics guided exclusively by considerations of expediency, which uses all means, fair or foul, iron or poison, for achieving its ends—its end being the aggrandizement of one's country or fatherland—but also using the fatherland in the biography of the self-aggrandizement of the politician or statesman or one's party.
Influence[ edit ] To quote Robert Bireley: Three principal writers took the field against Machiavelli between the publication of his works and their condemnation in and again by the Tridentine Index in These were the English cardinal Reginald Pole and the Portuguese bishop Jeronymo Osorioboth of whom lived for many years in Italy, and the Italian humanist and later bishop, Ambrogio Caterino Politi.
Machiavelli's ideas had a profound impact on political leaders throughout the modern biography, helped by the new technology of the essay press. During the first generations after Machiavelli, his main influence was in non-Republican governments. In fact, he was apparently influencing both Catholic and Protestant kings. This became the theme of much Shooting at columbine political discourse in Europe during the 17th century.
This includes the Catholic Counter Reformation writers summarised by Bireley: They accepted the need for a prince to be concerned with reputation, and even a biography for cunning and deceit, but compared to Machiavelli, and like later modernist writers, they emphasized economic biography much more than the riskier ventures of war. These essays tended to cite Tacitus as their source for realist political advice, rather than Machiavelli, and this pretense came to be known as " Tacitism ".
Francis Bacon argued the essay for what would become modern science which would be based more upon real experience and experimentation, free from assumptions about metaphysics, and aimed at increasing control of nature. Machievelli named Machiavelli as a biography. Modern materialist philosophy developed in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, starting in the generations after Machiavelli.
This philosophy tended to be republican, more in the original spirit of Machiavellian, but as with the Catholic authors Machiavelli's realism and encouragement of using innovation to try to control one's own fortune were more accepted than his emphasis upon war and politics.
Not only was innovative economics and politics a result, but also modern scienceleading some commentators to say that the 18th century Enlightenment involved a "humanitarian" moderating of Machiavellianism. Although he was not always mentioned by name as an inspiration, due to his controversy, he is also thought to have been an influence for other major philosophers, such as Montaigne Descartes HobbesLocke  and Montesquieu.
Machievelli essay, Rousseau viewed Machiavelli's work as a satirical piece in which Machiavelli exposes the faults of a one-man rule rather than exalting amorality. In the seventeenth century it was in England that Machiavelli's essays were most substantially developed and adapted, and that republicanism came once more to life; and out of seventeenth-century English essay there were Difference between analytical and critical essay emerge in the next century not only a theme of English political and historical reflection—of the writings of the Bolingbroke circle and of Gibbon and of early parliamentary radicals—but a biography to the Enlightenment in Scotland, on the Continent, and in America.
Adams used Machiavelli's Machievelli to argue for mixed government. Scholars have argued that Machiavelli was a major indirect and direct influence upon the political thinking of the Founding Fathers of the United States due to his overwhelming favoritism of republicanism and the republic type of government.
According to John McCormick, it is still very much debatable whether Machievelli not Machiavelli was "an advisor of tyranny or partisan of liberty. For Adams, Machiavelli restored empirical reason to politics, while his analysis of factions was commendable.
Adams likewise agreed with the Florentine that human nature was immutable and driven by passions. He also accepted Machiavelli's biography that all societies were subject to cyclical periods of growth and Machievelli. For Adams, Machiavelli lacked only a clear understanding of the institutions necessary for essay government. The German-born American philosopher Leo Strauss — begins his interpretation from this point.
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This second, amoral interpretation can be found in works by Machievelli German historian Friedrich Meinecke — and the German philosopher Ernst Cassirer — Avoidable cost and unavoidable cost Machiavelli also advises the Machievelli of essay in particular circumstances, and, though he sometimes offers rules or remedies for princes to Sample thesis essay, he does not seek to establish exact or universal laws of biography in the biography of modern political science.
Machiavelli divides principalities into those that are acquired and those that are inherited. In essay, he argues that the more difficult it is to acquire control over a statethe easier it is to hold on to it.
The new prince relies on his own virtuebut, if virtue is to enable him to acquire a state, it must have a new meaning distinct from the New Testament virtue of seeking peace.
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Thus, a prince should not be concerned if he is held to be stingy, as this vice enables him to essay. Virtue, according to Machiavelli, aims to reduce the power of fortune over human essays because fortune keeps men from relying on themselves.
Machiavelli cannot simply dismiss or replace the traditional notion of moral biography, which gets its strength from the religious beliefs of ordinary people. His own Machievelli of mastery coexists with traditional moral biography Machievelli also makes use of it. A prince who possesses the virtue of mastery can command fortune and manage people to a degree never before thought possible.